Book 3: Princeps

Book 3 takes a turn towards more difficult Latin, as fully-developed tense systems come to the fore. Hadrian is now seen to move through his early career as Trajan's right man, in campaigns against the Dacians. His marriage to Sabina is arranged and eventually, feeling slighted in Rome, he arrives in Athens, where he becomes Eponymous Archon. Consideration is given to his achievements in architecture and imperial consolidation. Antinous is discussed, as are other matters in Hadrian's rather difficult later life. Historical accuracy is one of the most abiding constants in the writing of this Latin course.

The linguistic content of Book 3 includes the full tense systems in Latin, presenting first the primary tenses and then the historic ones. Participles and complex structures such as conditional clauses and indirect statement feature towards the end of the book.

In each chapter of Book 3, a carefully selected set of poems by Martial is presented for students to translate and discuss. Martial is the ideal author for students at school, because few of his poems are long enough to be dull, and many of them remain funny today.


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A printed copy of Book 3 can be purchased from Amazon UK at this link or from Amazon USA at this link, or from at this link.

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A full pdf printout of Book 3 can be downloaded from TES Resources at this link.


Sample: Imperium Latin Book 3, Chapter 22